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The drive for this research is finding more efficient and cost effective uses in application of nanotechnology for Airforce and Navy military groups. Integration of fibre-reinforced nano-materials in structural features, such as missile casings, can limit overheating, increase reliability, strength and ductility of the materials used for such nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology designed for advanced communication is expected to equip soldiers and vehicles with micro antenna rays, tags for remote identification, acoustic arrays, micro GPS receivers and wireless communication. The United States, along with countries such as Russia and Germany, are utilising the convenience of small nanotechnologies, adhering it to nuclear "mini-nuke" explosive devices.
The structural integrity would remain the same as nuclear bombs , however manufactured with nano-materials to allow production to a smaller scale.
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Engineers and scientists alike, realise some of these proposed developments may not be feasible within the next two decades as more research needs to be undertaken, improving models to be quicker and more efficient. Particularly molecular nanotechnology , requires further understanding of manipulation and reaction, in order to adapt it to a military arena. Nanotechnology and its use in warfare promises economic growth however comes with the increased threat to international security and peacekeeping.
The rapid emergence of new nanotechnologies have sparked discussion surrounding the impacts such developments will have on geo-politics, ethics, and the environment. Difficulty in categorisation of nano-weapons, and their intended purposes defensive or offensive compromises the balance of stability and trust in the global environment. Ambiguity and a lack of transparency in research increases difficulty of regulation in this area.
Similarly, arguments put forward from a scientific standpoint, highlight the limited information known, concerning the implications of creating such powerful technology, in regards to reaction of the nano-particles themselves. The introduction of nanotechnology into every day life enables potential benefits of use, yet carries the possibility of unknown consequences for the environment and safety. Possible positive developments include creation of nano-devices to decrease remaining radio-activity in areas, as well as sensors to detect pollutants and adjust fuel-air mixtures.
It is unknown the full extent of consequences that may arise in social and ethical areas. Estimates can be made on the associated impacts as they may mirror similar progression of technological developments and affect all areas. Controversy surrounding the innovation and application of nanotechnology in warfare highlights dangers of not pre-determining risks, or accounting for possible impacts of such technology.
The same trend is foreseen with nanotechnology, which may lead to the so-called nanowars, a new age of destruction", stated by the U. Department of Defense. International regulation for such concerns surrounding issues of nanotechnology and its military application, are non existent. There is currently no framework to enforce or support international cooperation to limit production or monitor research and development of nanotechnology for defensive use.
Producing legislation to keep-up with the rapid development of products and new materials in the scientific spheres, would pose as a hinderance to constructing working and relevant regulation. Productive regulation should assure public health and safety, account for environmental and international concerns, yet not restrict innovation of emerging ideas and applications for nanotechnology.
Approaches to development of legislation, possibly include progression towards classified non-disclosive information pertaining to military use of nanotechnology. A paper written by Harvard Journal of Law and Technology , discusses laws that would revolve around specific export controls and discourage civilian or private research into nano-materials. Atomic Energy Act of , restricting any distribution of information regarding the properties and features of the nanotechnology at creation.
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A United States National Registry for Nanotechnology has enabled a public sphere where reports are available for curated data on physico-chemical characteristics and interactions of nanomaterials. The registry was developed to assist in the standardisation, formatting, and sharing of data. With more compliance and cooperation this data sharing model may "simplify the community level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. However, this idea of a specific nonmaterial registry is not original, as several databases have been developed previously including the caNanoLab and InterNano which are both engaging and accessible to the public, informatively curated by experts, and detail tools of nano manufacturing.
It translates a greater range of content regarding; comparison tools with other materials, encouraging standard methods, alongside compliance rating features.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Nanotechnology. Retrieved Bibcode : Sci The Heritage Foundation. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 16 May Department of Defense, U. Nature Nanotechnology. Courtesy of D. The nanowires are — nm in diameter and about 20 mm in length. Courtesy of W. The sample displayed in the image is about 10mm wide. The nanotubes from which it is being drawn are each about 10 nm in diameter. Courtesy of M. Presently more than products have been developed using nanotechnology.
The development of nanotechnology requires multidisciplinary teams of highly trained researchers with backgrounds in biology, medicine, mathematics, physics, chemistry, material science, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Education and training in nanotechnology require special laboratory facilities that can be quite expensive see Table 1.
The cost of creating and maintaining nanotechnology facilities is a major challenge for educational institutions. But by using innovative approaches such as interuniversity collaboration, academia—industry partnerships, and Web-based remote access to nanofabrication facilities, educational institutions can overcome the cost-related challenges and thus help students and faculty to become innovative nanotechnology researchers Khan To address these new demands of the global marketplace, a skilled work- force is required that can move from industry to industry without retraining.
The new workforce will consist of researchers, technicians, and educators. To develop this work force, new interdisciplinary educational programs need to be developed and revised. To promote the conditions for the development of nanotechnology work force in the United States, the NNI program was established in The NNI www. Society is at the threshold of a revolution that will transform the ways in which materials and products are created. How will this revolution develop?
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As we design systems on a nanoscale, we develop the capability to redesign the structure of all materials natural and synthetic along with rethinking the new possibilities of the reconstruction of any and all materials. Such a change in our design power represents tremendous social and ethical questions. Nanotechnology, like its predecessor technologies, will have an impact on all areas.
For example, in health care it is very likely that nanotechnology in the area of medicine will include automated diagnosis.
This in turn will translate into fewer patients requiring physical evaluation, less time needed to make a diagnosis, less human error, and a wider access to health-care facilities. However, with nano medicines if the average life span of humans increases, it will create a large portion of elderly persons requiring medical attention, resulting in increased health expenditures Moore It is essential for the nanotechnology stakeholders to strive to achieve four social objectives: 1 developing a strong understanding of local and global forces and issues that affect people and societies, 2 guiding local global societies to the appropriate uses of technology, 3 alerting societies to technological risks and failures, and 4 developing informed and ethical personal decision making and leadership to solve problems in a technological world Khan Advances in nanotechnology also present numerous challenges and risks in health and environmental areas.
Nanotechnology risk assessment methods and protocols need to be developed and implemented by the regulatory bodies.
Wireless nano sensors could save bridges, buildings
The challenge of technological development control over the structure of matter 2. The challenge of technological foresight the sense of the lower bounds of the future possibilities 3. The challenge of credibility and understanding a clearer understanding of these technological possibilities 4.
The challenge of formulating public policy formulating polices based on understanding VI. New demands on the curricula and work force of the future were also explored. It is imperative for 21 nanotechnology stakeholders to guide society to the appropriate uses of nanotechnology, alert society to the risks and potential failures, and provide a vision in helping to solve societal problems that are related to nanotechnology. An investigation of the origin of the color of the Lycurgus Cup by analytical transmission electron microscopy, Archaeometry, 32 1 ,33— Drexler, E.
The challenge of nanotechnology, viewed April 28, Ehrmann, R. Floros, J. Fonash, S. The overall picture: The world of nanotechnology. Hall, S. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Book. Hjorth, L. Technology and Society: Issues for the 21st Century and Beyond. Jha, A. Khan, A. Meyer, M. Implications