The present results are numerically verified by simulating three benchmark problems.

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The solid lines denote the numerical results, and the symbols are the analytical results. The solid lines represent the numerical results, and the symbols denote the analytical results.

Comparison between X t and associated analytical profiles. The solid line represents the numerical results, and the symbols denote the analytical results. Introducing a quantum kinetic model using the generalized Boltzmann equation in the complex phase space Abed Zadehgol and Reza Khazaeli Phys. E 98 , — Published 21 November Abstract In the present work, using the generalized Boltzmann equation of the first author [ Phys.

Research Areas. Cellular automata Classical statistical mechanics Kinetic theory Quantum formalism Quantum kinetic theory Quantum simulation Quantum statistical mechanics. Statistical Physics Quantum Information. It is shown that the well-known Boltzmann equation, which is thebasis of the classical kinetic theory, is incorrect in the definite sense. Additional terms need to be added leading to a dramatic change in transport theory.

## Unified Non-Local Theory of Transport Processes: Generalized Boltzmann Physical Kinetics

The result is a strict theory of turbulence and the possibility to calculate turbulent flows from the first principles of physics. Fully revised and expanded edition, providing applications in quantum non-local hydrodynamics, quantum solitons in solid matter, and plasmas Uses generalized Boltzmann kinetic theory as an highly effective tool for solving many physical problems beyond classical physics Addresses dark matter and energy Presents non-local physics in many related problems of hydrodynamics, gravity, black holes, nonlinear optics, and applied mathematics.

Passar bra ihop. Ladda ned. Nonlocal Astrophysics Boris V Alexeev Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficult The Boltzmann equation is therefore modified to the BGK form:.

The integration is over the momentum components in the integrand which are labelled i and j.

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The sum of integrals describes the entry and exit of particles of species i in or out of the phase-space element. The Boltzmann equation can be used to derive the fluid dynamic conservation laws for mass, charge, momentum, and energy. Since the conservation equations involve tensors, the Einstein summation convention will be used where repeated indices in a product indicate summation over those indices. Multiplying the Boltzmann equation by A and integrating over momentum yields four terms, which, using integration by parts, can be expressed as.

In Hamiltonian mechanics , the Boltzmann equation is often written more generally as.

## Physical fundamentals of the generalized Boltzmann kinetic theory of ionized gases - IOPscience

The non-relativistic form of L is. It is possible to write down relativistic quantum Boltzmann equations for relativistic quantum systems in which the number of particles is not conserved in collisions. This has several applications in physical cosmology , [9] including the formation of the light elements in Big Bang nucleosynthesis , the production of dark matter and baryogenesis. It is not a priori clear that the state of a quantum system can be characterized by a classical phase space density f.

However, for a wide class of applications a well-defined generalization of f exists which is the solution of an effective Boltzmann equation that can be derived from first principles of quantum field theory. The Boltzmann equation is of use in galactic dynamics. A galaxy, under certain assumptions, may be approximated as a continuous fluid; its mass distribution is then represented by f ; in galaxies, physical collisions between the stars are very rare, and the effect of gravitational collisions can be neglected for times far longer than the age of the universe.

Its generalization in general relativity. In physical cosmology the fully covariant approach has been used to study the cosmic microwave background radiation [14].

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More generically the study of processes in the early universe often attempt to take into account the effects of quantum mechanics and general relativity. In such an environment quantum coherence and the spatial extension of the wavefunction can affect the dynamics, making it questionable whether the classical phase space distribution f that appears in the Boltzmann equation is suitable to describe the system. In many cases it is, however, possible to derive an effective Boltzmann equation for a generalized distribution function from first principles of quantum field theory.

Exact solutions to the Boltzmann equations have been proven to exist in some cases; [15] this analytical approach provides insight, but is not generally usable in practical problems. Instead, numerical methods including finite elements are generally used to find approximate solutions to the various forms of the Boltzmann equation. Example applications range from hypersonic aerodynamics in rarefied gas flows [16] [17] to plasma flows. Close to local equilibrium , solution of the Boltzmann equation can be represented by an asymptotic expansion in powers of Knudsen number the Chapman-Enskog expansion [19].

The first two terms of this expansion give the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes equations. The higher terms have singularities. The problem of developing mathematically the limiting processes, which lead from the atomistic view represented by Boltzmann's equation to the laws of motion of continua, is an important part of Hilbert's sixth problem. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Boltzmann's entropy formula , Stefan—Boltzmann law , and Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution.

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For other uses, see BTE disambiguation.