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Articles Cited by. For example, Dr. This translates into invasion rates that far exceed background rates of natural invasion Crooks and Suarez For example, in San Francisco Bay alone, an average of one new species was introduced every 14 weeks between and Cohen and Carlton , In the Mediterranean, a new invader was discovered every week in the past 5 years. Although we have been much slower to realize the extent and impacts of inva- sions in the sea compared to those on land, our experience with problematic aquatic invasions continues to mount.
The alga Caulerpa taxifolia, a popular aquarium spe- cies, now carpets many square kilometers of sea floor in the Mediterranean, a comb jelly native to the western Atlantic caused the collapse of fisheries when introduced into the Caspian Sea, and invasive marsh grasses and mangroves are transforming wetlands around the world.
Non-native species are also agents of disease, such as the introduced protozoan MSX, which contributed to the collapse of Chesapeake Bay oyster populations. Also, escaped farmed species can hybridize with natives, leading to concern about aquaculture practices with species such as salmon. The truly troubling thing about marine invasions, however, is that although we are sure that we are doing a better job documenting their impacts, we are also sure that most invader impacts have gone, and continue to go, unnoticed.
Marine bioinvasions can be enormously costly in terms of economic and eco- logical damages as well as costs associated with management. Thus, especially when coupled with others changes in the sea, invasions are of growing concern to those charged with managing and protecting marine resources. In order to be most effective at addressing invasions, the conventional wisdom is that it is better to try to prevent an invasion rather than try to manage it after the fact. In order to help stem the flow of marine invasions, we are beginning to implement ballast water management practices such as open ocean exchange, but realize this is only a par- tial solution that must be employed until technological advances can be made to help better prevent invasions.
When species do invade, drastic management action is sometimes necessary. For example, in order to stop the incipient invasion of an exotic mussel in its tracks, an entire marina in Darwin, Australia, was poisoned with a lethal cocktail of bleach and copper. Despite such efforts, though, the science and art of marine invasion management is still in its infancy. It thus attracts the interests of a wide variety of scientists, and can be used as a vehicle for under- standing some basic ecological and evolutionary questions see Sax et al.
Free Marine Bioinvasions Patterns Processes And Perspectives
One of the principal goals of ecology is to understand the abundance and distri- bution patterns of organisms in their environment. It has long been recog- nized that abundances and distribution patters of species is highly dynamic both in time and space. These changes relate to seasonal, annual and decadal cycles, but can also be stochastic.
They also relate to species interactions and to disturbance. A natural world that was once thought to be controlled by a stable equilibrium is now known to be largely governed by dynamic non-equilibrium processes Rohde Throughout the history of life, species have appeared and gone extinct. Species shifted their geographical ranges as they crossed barriers, on land or in the sea, or as the climate changed.
As species arrived at new places, they had to cope with a new physical environment, as well as with the other species that they encoun- tered. They could compete with them for resources, eat them or be eaten by them, parasitize them, or be indifferent to them. Many of them evolved in order to adapt better to the new environment.
It is thought that most of these changes of geo- graphical ranges occurred at a relatively slow pace. However, this is not the case today. Nowadays, species can catch a ride on a plane or a boat and cross oceans in hours or days, often in great numbers hundreds of potentially invasive species can be found in the ballast water of a single ship arriving at a port; Carlton and Geller Invasions are fast and easy. Biological invasion touches on many facets of ecological disciplines.
It allows population ecologists to follow the rise and fall of populations from their first arrival or establishment. It lets community ecologists investigate the interactions of novel species with long-time residents, including the effects of invasions on the diversity of communities and vice versa — the effects of communities and ecosys- tems on invaders.
These have important implications for topics such as invasion resistance and ecosystem resilience see a few recent examples: van Ruijven et al. Invasions are also important for applied disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, and pest management. Crooks Biological invasions also are central to evolutionary considerations Baker and Stebbins ; Cox By examining invaders, scientists can witness the arms race between invaders and natives at a very fast pace, as one changes to accommodate to the existence of the other. Molecular ecologists can follow hybrid- ization processes among invaders and natives, or watch genetic drift in real time.
There is evidence, for example, that invaders adapt rapidly to their new environ- ment see Lee for a review and going through a genetic bottleneck, as many invaders presumably do due to a founder effect, may even eventually lead to specia- tion. There is already evidence that recent, anthropogenic invasions have prompted the evolution of new species Zimmerman ; Filchak et al.
As well as being used to answer evolutionary questions, genetics has become invaluable in addressing a variety of other issues related to biological invasions. Molecular techniques can be used to identify hard-to-identify or cryptogenic spe- cies, including larval forms so common in marine environments, or can allow the identification of coevolved enemies for use as possible biocontrol agents.
Genetics can also be used to identify geographic sources of invasive populations and invasion pathways, thus aiding invasion management Holland Genetics is also cen- tral to other invasion-related issues, such as the development of genetically modi- fied organisms GMOs and hybridization between foreign and domestic fish stocks. For a fuller treatment of genetic and evolutionary issues related to invasions, we would refer the reader to a steadily growing body of work e.
Although naturalists have been noticing and thinking about the problems caused by the establishment of naturalized and unwanted species in new environments for centuries, the seminal book of Charles Elton Elton drew serious attention to the phenomenon of biological invasions and their impacts on ecological communities. These appear in scientific books on the topic e.
This latter type of communication is particularly important, as it reflects, and in turn helps shape, public interest in the topic. Scientific studies on the cause and effects of biological invasions, as well as the formulation of theoretical frameworks and models, have focused in the past prima- rily on islands or on mainland terrestrial and freshwater environments.
These efforts offer some guidance for the study of marine invasions, but will not be uni- versally applicable. One fundamental life history difference between organisms in marine and terrestrial environments that has major implications for invasions is that, in the sea, many benthic animals have developed a sessile life style e.
Therefore they disperse, like most terres- trial plants, only via their early life stages, the propagules or larvae. The three-dimensional and wet nature of the medium, water, also allows fertilization to occur externally during spawning events, and therefore this mode of reproduction is prevalent in many species of marine animals and plants. Because of these and other such differences, a discrete body of knowledge that deals explicitly with inva- sions in the marine environment inevitably began to develop.
These papers appeared in a variety of applied and basic journals and, more recently, in journals devoted to the issue of biological invasions in general. Also, many invasion books have some treatment of marine invasions, but these tend to be relatively limited e. Mooney and Hobbs or geographically restricted in scope e. What was lacking, therefore, was a comprehensive book that focused on biologi- cal invasions in the marine environment — one that overviews both the progress of, and the gaps in, the ecological understanding of the processes determining invasion success and impacts in this ecosystem.
Management issues also need to be addressed with the ecological perspective in mind. Better ecological understanding improves predictions of potential future invasions, enhances risk assessment and advances the development of control measures. Although this is now a tall order and a full treatment is beyond the scope of any one volume, our book highlights these issues. In this volume we have assembled top experts in the fields of marine ecology and conservation biology to present to readers the most recent knowledge and new challenges in the research and management of marine bioinvasions.
Crooks into the environment through forging of ecological interactions.
William M. Graham - Google Scholar Citations
These can be boiled down to arrival, establishment, and integration phases Vermeij A final phase of invasion could also be considered in terms of our response to these events. This process will largely play itself out wherever invasions occur, but with potentially interesting idiosyncrasies that will provide further insight into invasions. In the book, we first provide an introduction to the book and field of study this chapter , as well as general perspectives on and approaches to considering marine invasions Section I: Perspectives on Marine Invasions.
The next section broadly treats how invaders get from where they are native to where they are introduced, including association with vectors, transport, and release of translocated individuals Section II: Invader Arrival. We then address the conditions necessary, both for the invader and the receiving environment, to make an invasion successful Section III: Invader Establishment.