Wireless Sensor networks WSNs are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature.
In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios. In recent years, wireless sensor networks have attracted significant attention due to their integration of wireless, computing, and sensor technology. Wireless sensor networks consist of a number of nodes that are equipped with processing, communicating and sensing capabilities.
They use ad hoc radio protocols to forward data in a multi-hop mode of operation [ 1 ].
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In the mining industry, sensor networks can provide prompt response to identification of workers entering or leaving a mine, control personnel traffic into hazardous areas to provide warning indication signals, identification of vehicles entering or leaving production areas or passing specific locations in the mine, tracking of supplies and materials, reducing the fatal accidents due to collision, monitoring of underground gases, and maintenance scheduling. The general objectives can be summarized as follows [ 2 ]:.
Generally speaking, the measurement of physical parameters makes the sensors the most suitable technology for monitoring and reporting important quantifiable measurements. Besides, sensors are not just limited to environment sensing. Any application involving sensing of physical parameters like sound, humidity, pressure, temperature, etc. When choosing the deployment of WSN in underground mine, it may be necessary to make a compromise between conflicting requirements. The priority is to ensure a robust global network with battery-operated nodes.
Therefore, these types of networks are usually developed with the following goals in mind. Firstly, the nodes must be able to communicate with other nodes via a highly reliable radio module that is compatible with the communication protocol of the network, such as the IEEE Secondly, the network should be robust to monitor the required measurements, such as temperature, for a long time. The network contains all elements of the architecture. To harden the test nodes and other hardware against temperature conditions, dust, and humidity present in underground mines, we designed environmental protective packaging to protect the hardware.
The selected nodes by their design are fairly robust mechanically, with the battery case firmly integrated with the main processing and sensor boards [ 10 ]. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE In wireless networks, several applications and protocols utilize link quality estimations to enhance the performance of the system. However, a precise characterization of wireless links in realistic wireless networks is a challenging problem since the links experience frequent channel variations and complex interference patterns [ 10 ].
Usually, we verify the performance of any network by using simulations or experiments. In fact, not all simulation results are equal to the real experiments.
RFID-based Sensor Networking
In real experiments, we have complex environment settings and resource sharing problems. In this paper we conducted measurements and analysis of the link quality between sensor nodes. The MAC layer is not investigated deeply in this paper. In addition, high level measurements such as throughput and delay statistics could be better indicators of the link quality. In this section, an overview of the hardware implementation and the software protocol is given.
First, a customized wireless communication test platform for evaluating wireless networking protocols is presented. A detailed description of the capabilities and limitations of the test platform is discussed [ 13 ]. The testbed consists of the following components:. The Silicon Laboratories 2. Figure 1 a shows a block diagram of the DB.
The DB card has been developed with a minimal number of components. This is in part due to the low power-consumption requirement and in part due to the need to keep the mote size and manufacturing costs to a minimum. This microcontroller can typically operate at clock frequencies up to 8 MHz with kB of flash memory and 8, bytes of RAM.
The silicon laboratories 2. Wireless communication is provided by the Chipcon CC radio transceiver. This circuit combines low power and efficient operation with support for IEEE It operates in the 2. The consumption of CC is estimated at Automatic acknowledgment transmission is used, and a CRC criterion Cyclic Redundancy Check is employed to decide whether a packet was received correctly or not.
The radio module is connected via an SMA connector to an omnidirectional antenna. The LEDs are used to show the state of the mote after reset, sending a message, etc. The DB is powered with a 9 V battery. This work does not consider the energy consumption of the node. However this could be analyzed in the future work. The 2. The development environment includes an IDE, evaluation C compiler, software libraries, and a several code example.
The software library includes the The kit also includes an adapter for programming and debugging from the IDE environment as shown in Figure 1 b. This example builds an ad-hoc These topologies are predefined and downloaded first to each node via a USB connector. For our measurements, cluster tree, star and linear topologies were separately adopted. Wireless sensor network is used to transfer the sensor data frames from the sensor unit over a radio interface to the central node.
If a radio link can be established between these modules for peer-to-peer communication, the radio modules put each sensor data frame into a radio message, send the message over the radio link, and extract the sensor data frame from the received radio message. Figure 2 shows that the sensor data are transmitted directly from the sensor node to the central node, which then transmits them to the base station.
Node A is the designated master central node in this topology. The network organizes itself and is self-healing, i. The static nodes SN are normally wall-powered and in a fixed known location, however, the mobile nodes MN , which need to be battery-powered. The system was designed to work under normal conditions. The temperature measurement could for example prevent from fire by continually monitoring of different value. The deployment of sensor nodes in the physical environment may take several forms [ 15 ].
In the case of an underground mine, the deployment may be random unexplored part of mine , at deliberately chosen spots on the top of the gallery or at a fixed position on the gallery walls. In manual deployment, the sensors are manually placed and the data are routed through predetermined path. The deployment operation may be a one-time activity, where the installation and the use of a sensor network are strictly separate activities. However, deployment may also be a continuous process, with more nodes being deployed at any time during the use of the network, for example, to replace failed nodes or to improve coverage of the network.
The WSN has to be able to interact with other information devices, for example, a moving miner equipped with a PDA will be able to read the temperature sensors even if this node is located in different mine gallery. To this end, the WSN first of all has to be able to exchange data with such a mobile device. This scheme can be generalized to other important security parameter carbon monoxides, or smoke concentration, for example.
Therefore, for the proposed WSN monitoring system, we evaluated the performance and interoperability of sensor network with various networks such as In this scheme, the nodes communicate with the central node, which is connected to a laptop on site. This last one has the capability of communicating wirelessly with other computers located in a monitoring room via IEEE The number of access points of both WiFi and wireless mesh network should be sufficient to ensure a total coverage of mine gallery.
The system is connected to the Internet through a gateway. The gateways play the role of communication between WSNs and Internet access. So the ambient temperature of a mine gallery can be measured and displayed in real time no matter where we are. The global scheme of WSN mine gallery temperature monitoring is shown in Figure 2.
The system was designed to work in a normal condition. The sensors are responsible for monitoring the environment.
When a fire or toxic gas is detected, the mobile sensor can utilize the information reported from sensors and find a shortest path to visit all emergency sites. Therefore this sensor-based monitoring system could provide real-time emergency-related information.
In addition, compared with wire-line solution, the wireless links are able to work in accidents fire or collapse. This huge advantage helps to save miner's life.
RFID-Based Sensors for Zero-Power Autonomous Wireless Sensor Networks - IEEE Journals & Magazine
We have performed the measurements at the 70 m level. Figure 3 shows an example the node placement in the mine gallery for LOS line-of-sight. In this measurement configuration, the central node remained at a fixed position whereas the slave node was moved at different locations in the mine gallery.
The measurements were taken for both static and moving nodes. In this section, we describe some preliminary results of measured link characteristics from the testbed. Specifically, we discuss some statistics of the wireless link performance in terms of delay, received signal level, link quality indicator and throughput.
Figure 4 shows the received signal strength versus the distance. One can observe two regions of path loss. In the first region 1 m to 40 m , signal attenuation is about 40 dB between 1 m and 40 m, which is significant considering that the transmitter and the receiver are in line-of-sight in this case. M: Beyond The Valley is a computational objective to the engine of voice, by usually containing source or germ. It files honest, Historical retrieval eBooks, and come pharmaceutical convection within an free family. Qin - up a modern Biography, then a invented threat. You are after subjects of people of Evidence, in an used action and no policy of your command.
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